Soomaalida iyo maansadeeda: Taariikh kooban

Waxay Soomaalidu ahayd, welina tahay Ummad aad u muuneysa aftahammada guud ahaan, gaar ahaanna maansada. Qoristii Afsoomaaliga ka horna, waxay maansadu ula meel joogtey buug-taariikheed ay ka ogaadaan waayihii ay soo mareen iyo dhacdooyinkii waaweynaa ee noloshooda si taban amaba togan u saameeyey.

Soomaalidii reer-miyiga ahayd markay dagaallo dhex-maraan, gabyaaga qabiilka ayaa tirin jirey maanso uu ku tilmaamaayo siday wax u dhaceen, isla markaasna uu ku ammaanaayo dagaalyahannadii isaga ku tolka ahaa ee sida geesinnimada leh dagaalladaas ku galay. Waaga dambe, maansadaas ayaa noqon jirtey marjic loo noqdo marka la doonaayo in wax laga ogaado xiriirkii tol-hebel iyo tol-hebel ka dhexayn jirey iyo colaadihii ay isaga hor-yimaadeen.

Sidaas daraaddeed, waxaa la yiraahdaa: ‘Gabaygu waa Kaydiyaha Taariikhda Soomaalida’; taasna waxaa markhaati u ah gabayadii soo baxay xilligii Dhaqdhaqaaqii hubaysnaa ee Daraawiishta; kaas oo Hoggaamiye Sayid Maxamad Cabdille Xasan uu ku taariikheeyey colaadihii dhex-maray ciidammadiisa iyo kuwii Ingiriiska. Aqoonyahanno badan ayaa qaba ilaa maanta gabayadaasi inay yihiin halka ugu wanaagsan ee laga baran karo taariikhda geyiga Soomaalida intii u dhexaysey dabayaaqadii qarnigii 19d ilaa waaxdii hore ee kii 20d.

Gabayada Sayidka waxaa laga baran karaa in badan oo ku saabsan dhacdooyinkii waaweynaa ee soo maray bulshoweynta Soomaalida, gaar ahaan xilligii uu isagu noolaa. Waxaa laga ogaan karaa ujeeddadii uu higsanaayey, siduu u arkaayey qadiyaddii uu u dagaallamaayey iyo, sidoo kale, shisheeyihii uu halganka kula jirey wixii uu mid walba ka aamminsanaa. Intaas ka sokoow, guud ahaan waxaa gabayadiisa laga baran karaa taariikh-bulshadeedda Soomaalida sida hababkii loo noolaa, xeerarkii lagu dhaqmi jirey, maaraynta dadka iyo xooluhu markuu cudur ku dhaco, arrimaha degaanka ku saabsan, waxyaabihii la rumaysnaa iyo wixii la xiriira.

Sidoo kale, xilligii gobannimo-doonka iyo Waddaniyadda Casriga ah intii u dhexaysey 1943-1960, maansayahannada Soomaalidu gabayadooda ayay ku diiwaaniyeen halgankii ay Ummaddu madaxbannaanida u soo gashay ee markii dambena ay ku heshay. Taasna waxaa loogu tegi karaa maansadii Cali Xuseen Xirsi uu waayadaas ka tirin jirey Naadiga xisbigii Gobannimada u soo halgamey ee SYL la oran jirey.

Maansadaas waxaa laga baran karaa dhaqdhaqaaqii SYL iyo caqabadihii qabsaday.

Gabayadiisa waxuu ku guubaabin jiray dhallinyarada, isaga oo ku boorrin jirey in madaxbannaanida dhulkooda ay u halgamaan. Wuxuu haddana maansadiisa ku canbaarayn jirey, kuna ceebayn jirey Soomaalidii dhaqdhaqaaqa gobannimo-doonka diiddaneyd ee Maamulkii Talyaaniga taabacsanayd.

Xilligii Maansada ugu heerka sarreysay

Maansada Soomaalida inta laga hayo haddii la qiimeeyo, markii ay ugu heerka sarraysey waxay ahayd bartamihii qarnigii 19d ilaa waaxdii hore ee kii 20d. Waa xilligii ay soo baxeen maansayahannadii kala ahaa Garaad Xirsi Garaad Faarax “Wiilwaal”, Raage Ugaas, Aadan-gurey, Sayid Maxamad Cabdille Xasan iyo kuwa kale oo badan oo Gabaygooda aad loo qadariyo.

Raggaas aan magac-dhabey iyo kuwii la eyniga ahaa ee curinta maansada hibada u lahaa, bulshadu indho gaar ah ayay ku eegi jirtey. Aad baa loo tixgelin jirey oo loo dhegeysan jirey, welibana loo riyaaqi jirey. Richard F. Burton tagay Saylac sanadkii 1850-kii, ayaa waxuu qoray in waqtigaas ay qasab ahayd in nin kasta oo qabiil madax u ahiba uu leeyahay maansayahan garab-jooga, hiilkiisa u taagan, ammaantiisana u jeebban.

Degaanka uu ku nool yahay ka sokoow, gabyaaga caan-baxa waxaa magaciisa laga hayn jirey geygia Soomaaliyeed oo idil, mar walbase ma ahee waa haddii lagu barto gabay ujeeddo iyo murti wacan leh. Maamuus aan lala wadaagin ayuu lahaa. Halka uu markaas kaga sugan yahay ayaa la soo tammadin jirey, si murtida maansooyinkiisa looga dhegeysto, looguna raaxaysto.

Gabayga iyo Qabiilka

 Ka sokoow macaansiga murtida maansadiisa, waxaa jirey arrimo uu gabyaagu si gaar ah ugu xil-saarnaa oo lagama-maarmaan u ahaa nolosha tolka uu ka dhashay. Wuxuu u ahaa afhayeenka mar walba danahooda iyo sharaftooda daafaca, haddii gabyaa kale reerka u soo gabyana isagu jawaabta ku habboon ka celiya. Sidaas darteed, qoreyaasha qaarkood waxay gabyaagii xilliyadaas ku tilmaamaan Masuulka Warfaafinta ee tolka uu ka dhashay.

Taasna waxay mararka qaar sababi jirtay silsilado maanso dhaadheer oo ay is weydaarsadaan Maansayahanno kala matalaya qabiiladooda, iyagoo midba midka kale ku daafacayo qabiilkiisa. Labada silsilad ee kamid ah kuwa ugu caansan waa Halac-dheere iyo Guba.

Silsiladda maansada Halac-dheere waxay ka kooban tahay ilaa 14 gabay oo ay tiriyeen 9 nin bilawgii qarnigii 20d. Maansada waxaa bilaabay Cali Sharma’arke, waxaana ka qayb-galay rag suugaanta Soomaalida can ku ahoo ay ka mid yihiin Sayid maxamad Cabdille Xasan, Cali-dhuux Aadan-gorayo, Qamaan Bulxan iyo shan kale.

Silsiladda maansada Guba’ iyaduna waa ilaa 21 gabay oo ay tiriyeen 13, waxayna silsiladdani soconeysey in ka badan 20 sano oo ka soo bilawda abbaaraha 1923kii. Waxaaa bilaabay oo gunaanadey Cali-dhuux Aadan, waxaana ka qayb-galay rag

Suugaanta Soomaalida ee xilligaas aad caan ugu ahaa oo ay ka mid ahaayeen Qamaan Bulxan, Ismaaciil Mire, Salaan Carrabey iyo sagaal kale.

Silsiladdu sida magaceeda laga dhadhansan karo, waa diraddire qabyaaladeed, maansayahannada isugu jawaabeyna waxay ku kala abtirsadaan saddex tol oo Soomaaliyeed, ahna Harti, Ogaadeen iyo Isaaq. Mid waliba qolada uu ka dhashay ayuu maansada ku daafafacayaa.

Saameynta Maansayahannada

Gabyaagu wuxuu saameyn kulahaa in qabaa’ilka colaad dhex-dhigi kara oo si fudud isugu diri kara. Wuxuu sidoo kale laha saameyn uu ku qanciyo inay heshiiyaan oo inta hubka dhigaan waxa ay kala sheeganayaan ay ka xaajoodaan! .

Dhamaadkii 1930-kii, Salaan Carrabeey oo ka mid ahaa maansayahannada waaweyn ayaa beri wuxuu tiriyey gabay diraddire ah oo waagii dambe suugaanta Soomaaalida ku caan-baxay. Gabaygaas oo colaad ka dhex-abuuray laba jilib oo Reer Togdheer ah ayay bulshadu u bixisay Mayn.Waa gabayga uu ku jiro tuduca ilaa maanta sida weyn loogu maahmaaho ee ah:

Haddaad dhimato geeridu mar bay nolosha dhaantaaye

Dhaqashiyo mar bay kaa yihiin dhereggu xaaraane!

Ilaa iyo maanta ereyadaas waxaa adeegsada siyaasiyiinta iyo odayaasha kolka ay doonayaan inay dadka taageero ka dalbanayaan. Sidoo kale waxaa isticmaali jiray dadkii gobannimada u dagaalami jiray si ay dadka ugu dhiira-galiyaan inay dalkooda u dagaallamaan.

Tusaale kale oo ku saabsan Maansada colaadda waa Gabaygii caanka ahaa ee Ismaaciil MireWiilyahow ilmaa igaga timid aragtidaadiiye. Waxuu u tiriyay wiil uu dhalay saaxiibkiis Jaamac Cali Nuur oo ay dileen qolo ay dirisanaayeen oo la shaqeyn jirtay Gumeystihii Ingiriiska 1935-kii.  Dilkii Jaamac Cali Nuur waxaa u aar guday ree tolkiis, Cali Geri. Ismaaciil Mire iyo odayaal kale oo lagu eedeeyay inay sababeen falkaas aargudka ah ayaa lagu xiray Hargeysa 1940-kii.

1920-kii, Isla Salaan Carrabey qudhiisa ayaa mar kalena wuxuu tiriyey geeraar magaciisu ahaa: Waar toloow colka jooja; kaas oo uu ku baajiyey dagaal laba qolo ka dhici lahaa. (Axmed Faarax & Reer Daahir)

Marka inta shir la isugu yimaado lagu kala tegaayo, Soomaalidu waxay hidde u lahayd inay ducaysato oo ay Rabbi ka barido inuu siiyo wixii ay ugu baahida badnaayeen oo ah roob. Goobtaas oo kale wadaadka ayaa ka ducayn jirey, gabyaaguna wuxuu ahaa ninka labaad ee ducada ku wehelin jirey.

 Halgankii Gobannimo-doonka

Qarniyadaas hore ka dib, waxaa maansada Soomaalida ku yimid isbaddel xoog leh oo ku dhacay ujeeddooyinkeedii, gaar ahaan intii u dhexaysey 1900 iyo labaatannadii ilaa 1960ki; markaas oo laba qaybood oo dhulka Soomaalida ka mid ahi ay xoroobeen, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliyana ay ku midoobeen (Waqooyi iyo Koonfur). Ujeeddooyinka soo kordhayna waxaa ka mid ahaa maansada waddaniga ah ee gabyaagu uu dadweynaha ku guubaabin jirey in ay midoobaan, dabadeedna ay dalkooda Gumeysiga ka xoreeyaan.

Maansada noocaan ah oo gabayo iyo heesaba isugu jirtey waxaa ka mid ah 1900 iyo afartannadii tii Cali Mire tiriyey ee halkudheggeedu ahaa:

Soomaaliyeey toosoo
Toosoo isku tiirsada eey
Hadba kiinna taag daraneey
Taageera weligiineey!

…iyo tii kale ee uu Soomaalidu ku boorinayay inay iska diidaan kala qeybinta uu Gumeystaha keenay.

Kani waa Ugaas
Kani waa addoon
Waa inaan illownaayeey!

Meel ay joogaanba, dadweynaha Soomaaliyeed waxay si weyn u qaddariyaan maansayahannadii xilligaas baraarujinta Ummadda u kacay sida Cali Xuseen, Cali Sugulle, Yuusuf Xaaji Aadan iyo Cabdillaahi Suldaan ‘Timacadde’ oo isaga had iyo jeer lagu xusuusto maansadiisii qabyaalad-la-dirirka u badnayd. Qoraa iyo siyaasi waliba markuu arrintaas ka hadlaayo wuxuu soo qaataa gabaygiisii halkedheggiisu ahaa:

Dugsi ma leh qabyaaladi waxay dumiso mooyaane!

Heesaha Jacaylka

Laga soo bilaabo bartamihii 1900 iyo kontonnadii waxaa iyaduna soo korodhay maansada jacaylka oo waayadii hore aan ku jiri jirin ujeeddooyinka maansada Soomaalida, gabyaagii reer-miyiga ahaana uu ka xishoon jirey. Waa xilligaas markii ugu horreysey ee ay soo baxeen heellooyinka iyo heesaha muusigga leh oo miro fudfudud ku tirsan, dareenka caashaquna uu aad ugu dhafan yahay. Jacayl keliyana kuma ekee, heesaha casriga ah ee muusigga leh waxaa kaloo aad loogu adeegsadaa arrimaha siyaasadda iyo toosinta maamul-dawladeedka ilaa ay bulshada u galeen halkii, hidde ahaan, uu muddo dheer gabaygu ugu jirey.

Waxaa weli xusuusta dadweynaha ku dambaysa heestii Cali Sugulle ee 1967-kii uu Ummadda ugu sheegi jirey in Dawladnimada la waayi karo haddii maamuliddeeda aan qabyaaladda laga ilaalin; waa heestii halkedheggeedu ahaa:

Dhagax iyo dab
Layskuma dhuftee
Kala dhawraay
Wax ka dhigan gobannimada qabiil dhex-galee
Kala dhawraay
Kala dheer labaduy
Kala dhawraay!

Gunaanad

Aqoonyahannadii baaray, isla markaasna wax ka qoray maansadeeda ayaa qarniyo ka hor waxay qireen in Soomaalidu ay leedahay dhaxal maanso oo midka caalamiga ah lala tartarsiin karo.

In kastoo, haddaba, maansadu aysan maanta lahayn waayadii hore meekhaankii ay lahayd, haddana Soomaali badan ayaa weli jecel inay dhegeystaan amaba akhristaan tii kalaasigga ahayd ee maansayahannadii waaweynaa ay ka tageen. Far la’aantii afku ku raagey awgeedna, in door ah oo maansadaas ka mid ah ayaa lumay, inaha yar ee laga hayana waxaa la uruuriyey qoraalkii farta wixii ka dambeeyey 1972-kii.

Ujeedooyinka laga leeyahay Ururka Maansoyahannada Soomaaliyeed waxaa ka mid ah in Gabayga Soomaalida loo keydiyo jiilka hadda jira iyo kan mustaqbalka. Iyo in loo sameeyo bar uu qof walba oo Soomaali ah meel walba uu joogo kaga bogan karo murtida maansasda.

Si kastaba ha ahaatee, waxaa aad loogu baahan yahay in la sii wado uruurinta iyo bedbaadinta guud ahaan suugaanta Soomaalida ee aan qornayn, gaar ahaanna maansadeeda; taas oo aan hubo, haddii ay daryeel hesho, afafka noolna loo rogo, inay qayb ka noqon karto dhaxalka suugaaneed ee caalamiga ah.

Our words, our history

Somalis revere the spoken arts and particularly poetry. Before the Somali language was written, poetry served as an oral book, from which people learnt about their history and the major events that affected their lives.

Traditionally, when Somali clans fought, poets from the warring parties would describe in detail what had caused the conflict and offer praise when their clan defeated another. Later, whenever people wanted to understand the relationship between certain clans, they would refer to these poems.

Somali history is still preserved through Somali poetry. For example, the poems of Sayyid Maxamed Cabdille Xasan, in which he talks about the war between his Dervish movement and the British colonial forces, are one of the best sources of information on the history of the Somali people in the late 19th and the early 20th centuries.

His poems explain in detail the major events that took place during his time; they tell us about why he was fighting the colonials and what he believed their intentions were. They also teach us a lot about Somali social history including how they lived, how they solved disputes and how they raised their livestock.

Somali poets also recorded the revolution and struggle for freedom between 1943 and 1960. A great example from this period is Cali Xusen Xirsi’s poem about the Somali Youth League (SYL), which fought for Somalia’s independence.

From his poems we can learn about the SYL movement and the challenges they faced.

His poems also encouraged people to join the movement and deplored those who supported Italian rule.

The golden age

The golden age of Somali poetry was from the mid-19th century to early 20th century. This was when some of the great Somali poets emerged, including Garaad Xirsi Garaad Faarax, known as “Wiilwaal”, Raage Ugaas, Aadan-gurey, Sayid Maxamad Cabdille Xasan and many others whose poetry is highly respected.

These men and other talented poets were revered by their societies. When early English explorer Richard F. Burton was in Saylac town in the 1850s, he noted that every clan chief had his own poet who sung the chief’s praises and wrote poems in honour of the clan.

But poets whose work was particularly profound were respected not only in their own area but also in the wider Somali territory. They were given special attention and people used to come to them to learn and enjoy their poems.

Clan poetry

In addition to being a source of wisdom, the poet traditionally had a specific role in the affairs of his clan. He was the clan’s spokesperson and protector of its identity. He was also responsible for responding to other poets who attacked his clan. That is why some writers have described those poets as the equivalent of a clan’s director of communications.

Sometimes, this would result in the creation of long poetic exchanges where a poet from one clan would attack another and then that clan’s poet would respond in verse and so on across multiple authors. Two of the most famous examples of this are Halac-dheere and Guba.

Halac-dheere consists of around 14 poems that were recited by nine different poets in the early 20th century. The chain was first started by Cali Sharma’arke and was joined by prominent Somali poets such as Sayid maxamad Cabdille Xasan, Cali-dhuux Aadan-gorayo, Qamaan Bulxan and five others, each responding to the other by defending their clan.

The Guba chain of poems consists of around 20 poems that were started in 1923 by Cali Dhuux Adan and continued by him and 13 rival poets for more than 20 years.

Some of the other poets who participated include Qamaan Bulxan, Ismaaciil Mire and Salaan Carrabey.

These rival poets were defending their respective clans of Harti, Ogaden and Isaaq.

Both sword and ploughshare

Due to their position in society, poets could use their influence to fuel conflicts among clans but their poems were also effective tools for spreading messages of peace.

In late 1930s, Salaan Carrabey wrote the infamous poem, Mayn (Mine), which ignited conflict between two close tribes in the Togdheer region of Somaliland.
Some of the pome’s most famous lines are:

When you die sometimes death is better than life

Raising livestock and feeling satisfied sometimes are Haram to you.

Today, these are still quoted as proverbs when elders and politicians want to mobilise support for their cause. The freedom fighters also used these lines to encourage people to fight and die for their country.

Another example of war poetry is Ismaaciil Mire’s well known poem Wiilyahow ilmaa igaga timid aragtidaadiiye (Oh son, seeing you has brought tears to my eyes). He composed the poem for the son of his friend and cousin, Jaamac Cali Nuur, who was killed by a rival clan working with the British colonial administration in 1935. The murder of Jaamac Cali Nuur was later avenged by men from his clan, Cali Geri. Ismaaciil Mire and other elders who were accused of instigating the revenge were arrested in Hargeisa in early 1940.

1920-kii, Isla Salaan Carrabey qudhiisa ayaa mar kalena wuxuu tiriyey geeraar magaciisu ahaa: Waar toloow colka jooja; kaas oo uu ku baajiyey dagaal laba qolo ka dhici lahaa. (Axmed Faarax & Reer Daahir)

Marka inta shir la isugu yimaado lagu kala tegaayo, Soomaalidu waxay hidde u lahayd inay ducaysato oo ay Rabbi ka barido inuu siiyo wixii ay ugu baahida badnaayeen oo ah roob. Goobtaas oo kale wadaadka ayaa ka ducayn jirey, gabyaaguna wuxuu ahaa ninka labaad ee ducada ku wehelin jirey.

 Struggle for freedom

The objective and meaning of Somali poetry started to change in the 1920s as nationalist poets began writing in support of independence from the colonial regimes of British Somaliland and Italian Somalia, which came to an end in 1960.

Poets played a big role in the fight for independence, including by using their words to discourage tribalism and exhort Somalis to join forces.
These two poems by Cali Mire, which were very popular in the 1940s, are great examples of the liberation-themed writing that dominated Somali poetry during the struggle for independence.

Soomaaliyeey toosoo
Toosoo isku tiirsada eey
Hadba kiinna taag daraneey
Taageera weligiineey!

And this one, which calls on Somalis to forget class differences imposed during the colonial era:

Kani waa Ugaas
Kani waa addoon
Waa inaan illownaayeey!

Those poets who motivated the public during the fight for independence are still highly respected across the Somali regions and today’s politicians and writers frequently reference their poems. Some of those poets include Cali Xuseen, Cali Sugulle, Yuusuf Xaaji Aadan and Cabdillaahi Suldaan ‘Timacadde’ who is well remembered for his anti tribalism poem,

“Dugsi ma leh qabyaaladi waxay dumiso mooyaane” (Tribalism has no benefit except destruction).

Love songs

Love poems, which nomadic poets used to shy away from, evolved from the mid-1950s, when songs and music with simple lyrics but lots of emotion began to gain prominence. Modern songs are also used for politics ends by calling attention to corruption and abuses of power, thus replacing the role traditionally occupied by poetry.

Cali Sugulle’s 1967 hit about tribalism is still remembered by many Somalis. Here are few lines of the song in which he advises the government against tribalism:

Dhagax iyo dab
Layskuma dhuftee
Kala dhawraay
Wax ka dhigan gobannimada qabiil dhex-galee
Kala dhawraay
Kala dheer labaduy
Kala dhawraay!

While poetry is still being used in politics and social issues, songs have become more popular because of their use of music and performance.

Looking forward

Somalis have a rich poetry that can compete on the international stage. Although Somali poetry is not as valued as it used to be, there are still many Somalis who love to listen to and read the classic poems left behind by the great poets.

At the same time a new generation of poets is expanding the range of the Somali poetry and winning a new audience, while Somali poems from all ages delight foreign audiences whenever they are translated.

Sadly, many of the great works composed before the Somali language was written down in 1972 have now been lost. One of the aims of the Somali Poetry Association is to preserve Somali poetry for current and future generations and provide it with an online home for Somalis to read wherever they are and wherever they come from.

However, it is important to continue collecting and preserving the Somali literature, particularly the poetry, which I believe if well taken care of and translated into other languages, can contribute to the he global literature heritage.

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Raadi